Research Directs in Health Sciences <p>Research Directs in Health Sciences (ISSN: 2768 - 492X) is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. The journal encourages authors to submit research in the health sciences, epidemiology, physical activity, health disparities and other health-related lines of inquiry.</p> en-US <p>Copyright, 2022 by the authors. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.</p> (Research Directs) (Research Directs) Mon, 10 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Qualitative Exploration of Desired mHealth App Mechanisms Related to Daily Life Influences for College Nursing Students <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Mobile health (mHealth) apps are digital health tools that allow for the delivery and access to vital health information, support, and encouragement needed to foster positive behavior change. Designing and developing mHealth solutions based on daily life influences for nursing students is imperative to establishing healthier physical and mental health habits. </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Multiple focus groups (n=10) were conducted, and a questionnaire (n=11) was administered to undergraduate students in the professional nursing component. Themed analysis of focus-group data was conducted along with descriptive analysis of the questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: All participants stated it has been more difficult to maintain a healthy lifestyle since beginning the nursing program. This deterioration can be attributed to three key areas: mental health needs/support, rigor of nursing school, and decline in positive health choices. Participants stated they would use an mHealth app designed specifically for nursing students to combat deterioration of their health.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The results of this study (100% positive response rate) reveal mHealth applications might be a powerful tool in helping nursing students transform their physical and mental health. It appears that if an mHealth application is created with the specific “must-haves” of nursing students then we might experience a positive shift in health behaviors for nursing students, which will hopefully transcend into their careers as nurses. </p> Scott Sittig, Caitlyn Hauff, Susan G. Williams, Rebecca J Graves, Sharon Fruh Copyright (c) 2022 Scott Sittig, Caitlyn Hauff, Susan G. Williams, Rebecca J Graves, Sharon Fruh Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Pairing Mobile Health with Simulation Technology to Assist Sickle Cell Caregivers <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Sickle Cell disease (SCD) affects approximately 100,00 Americans and occurs in about one in every 365 black or African American births. SCD caregivers could utilize health technology such as mHealth to assist them with appointment reminders, medication management, education, and pain management as it relates to better managing this disease process. </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A mixed-methods approach was utilized to explore the perceived influential factors that impact the caregivers’ ability to care for the children with SCD and utilize mHealth and simulation. A 33-question survey was administered which included questions on: demographics, SCD, mHealth and simulation, General Self-Efficacy, Adult Hope, and four opened-ended questions.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In total, 36 SCD caregivers completed the survey and three of them provided an additional interview. Sixty nine percent of the caregivers were mothers (n = 25) of the children with SCD and all the caregivers were African American. Self-Efficacy (<em>p</em>=.568) and Adult Hope scores (<em>p</em>=.762) were not a predictor for willingness to use mHealth or simulation. </p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: SCD caregivers are using some forms of technology to help them however an all-inclusive (one-stop location) mHealth app along with simulation training would allow these caregivers to better manage their patient’s/loved ones SCD.</p> Scott Sittig, Tierney Beebe, Jessica Landry, Helen Hurst Copyright (c) 2022 Scott Sittig, Tierney Beebe, Jessica Landry, Helen Hurst Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of an Acute Bout of High-Intensity Interval Exercise on Heart Rate Variability Indices and Stress Index in the Absence of Cardiometabolic Diseases <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The maximal rate of oxygen consumption is the gold standard when determining cardiorespiratory fitness (CF) in healthy and diseased populations. CF has been shown to influence the improvement of cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) and lower the risk of morbidity and mortality rates. High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has been shown to influence CAM post-exercise in various populations. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive way to assess CAM during, before, and after exercise. The purpose was to determine if a single acute bout of HIIE is influenced by age and CF when correlated to HRV variables to determine CAM in healthy and fit individuals.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Thirty-four healthy individuals (n= 21 male; n = 13 female) completed a single acute bout of HIIE session to quantify CAM via HRV. HRV was assessed pre, 1-hour, and 24-hours post-exercise using time and frequency domains, and stress index (SI).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> HRV time and frequency domains were not significantly changed. The SI was significantly different between pre, 1-hour, and 24-hours post-exercise (<em>p</em> = 0.001). The SI was also significantly different between age groups (<em>p</em> = 0.025).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The lack of significant difference in CAM can be attributed to the participants high CF, which helps maintain their HRV as they age. Additionally, the SI appears to be a good metric to assess CF as individuals age.</p> Ricardo Torres, Kathleen Richardson, Catherine Lowry, Cassidy Beeson, Ahmed Ismaeel, Panagiotis Koutakis, Jeffrey Forsse Copyright (c) 2022 Ricardo Torres, Kathleen Richardson, Catherine Lowry, Cassidy Beeson, Ahmed Ismaeel, Panagiotis Koutakis, Jeffrey Forsse Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Identify Social Determinants of Health Related to Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions: Decreasing Hospitalizations and Emergency Department Visits <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) have been linked to higher emergency room and hospitalization rates. Research suggests social determinants of health (SDOH) may play a role; however, there is a limited understanding of the relationship between ACSCs and SDOH. This study's objective was to examine the relationship between structural and intermediary SDOH and chronic ACSC status among United States adults (U.S.).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Data were drawn from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Surveillance System for 12 states and U.S. territories that completed the SDOH module (N= 111,828). Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis identified SDOH associated with a chronic ACSC status.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: More than 45% of participants had a chronic ACSC. Individuals with ACSCs had higher odds of reporting their neighborhood as unsafe (AOR=1.25; 95%CI=1.05-1.49) than those who reported their neighborhood as extremely safe. Similarly, participants with ACSCs were significantly more likely to report challenges paying their utilities/rent/mortgage (AOR=1.18; 95%CI=1.03-1.36) than to report not experiencing challenges. </p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: To address chronic ACSCs, intersectoral public policies are warranted to diminish educational inequalities and racial disparities. This population would also benefit from community-based interventions that connect them to local resources that reduce stress and improve their financial stability and neighborhood safety level.</p> Maria Gjini, Nasim Khan, Gjovana Vuljaj, Adriana Stefanovski, Abbey Kaminski, Brooke Weber, Caress Dean Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Gjini, Nasim Khan, Gjovana Vuljaj, Adriana Stefanovski, Abbey Kaminski, Brooke Weber, Caress Dean Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Test-Retest Reliability of the Microvascular Oxygenation Recovery Response Subsequent to Submaximal Cycling Exercise <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The purpose was to quantify the within-session and between-session reliability of halftime (HT) and monoexponential curve fitting (EXP) analyses, when assessing the microvascular tissue oxygenation (StO<sub>2</sub>) recovery response via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong> Seventeen subjects completed a submaximal cycling test and 6-minute cool-down on three occasions. The protocol was completed twice during session 1 and once during session 2. StO<sub>2</sub> were collected via NIRS from a randomized vastus lateralis<strong>. </strong>StO<sub>2</sub> response from the last minute of exercise and the entire cool-down was analyzed using HT and EXP. Within-session and between-session reliability were examined by mixed, absolute agreement intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of the measurement (SEM).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: HT resulted in higher within-session reliability compared to EXP for exercising StO<sub>2</sub> (ICC<sub>HT</sub>=0.920, ICC<sub>EXP</sub>=0.865, SEM<sub>HT</sub>=4.9 ∆BSL, SEM<sub>EXP</sub>=6.2 ∆BSL) and StO<sub>2</sub> recovery time (ICC<sub>HT</sub>=0.772, ICC<sub>EXP</sub>=0.720, SEM<sub>HT</sub>=7 sec, SEM<sub>EXP</sub>=9 sec). Similar between-session reliability for exercising StO<sub>2</sub> was observed (ICC<sub>HT</sub>=0.895, ICC<sub>EXP</sub>=0.879, SEM<sub>HT</sub>=5.2 ∆BSL, SEM<sub>EXP</sub>=5.4 ∆BSL), however HT elicited higher between-session reliability for StO<sub>2</sub> recovery time (ICC<sub>HT</sub>=0.583, ICC<sub>EXP</sub>=-0.211, SEM<sub>HT</sub>=7 sec, SEM<sub>EXP</sub>=15 sec). </p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Due to the better within-session (exercising StO<sub>2</sub>, StO<sub>2</sub> recovery time) and between-session (StO<sub>2</sub> recovery time) reliability, practitioners are encouraged to use HT when assessing exercising StO<sub>2</sub> and StO<sub>2</sub> recovery time.</p> Trent E. Cayot, Alicia M. Otto, Alex Sikora, Alexandria C. Frick, Nathanial R. Eckert, Stacey L. Gaven Copyright (c) 2022 Trent E. Cayot, Alicia M. Otto, Alex Sikora, Alexandria C. Frick, Nathanial R. Eckert, Stacey L. Gaven Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Qualitative Exploration of Social Media Consumption and Use Among Everyday Women Who Participate in CrossFit <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Social media allows a user to be a content creator and consumer. This paper focuses on the social media engagement of everyday women who participate in CrossFit, exploring differences in how they consume and use social media content. CrossFit women are celebrated for their strength, power, and fitness in the social media community, which is not consistent for all women.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study used semi-structured focus groups with 47 participants between the ages of 18-54 who were everyday women who participate in CrossFit. The participants self-identified their level of CrossFit as recreational, semi-competitive, competitive, or high-level competitors. </p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Findings reveal two major themes: consuming corporate messaging and using social media for their own benefit, included the subthemes of social support and shifting perceptions. The findings, including supportive quotations from the participants, reveal that these women are critical consumers of social media who express disapproval of traditional media portrayals of women’s bodies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Women’s experiences with CrossFit seem to offer some protection from the negative outcomes associated with consumption of traditional media messaging about women’s bodies.</p> Christina Gipson Copyright (c) 2022 Christina Gipson Mon, 10 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Physical Activity and Exercise for Optimal Disease Prevention: Clinical Evidence <p>Previous physical activity guidelines from health organizations provide general physical activity and exercise intensity and duration recommendations. These guidelines have experienced very little change over the last two decades, despite significant changes in technology, more specifically wearable technology. The guidelines typical refer to exercise intensity as low, moderate and vigorous intensity based on a metabolic equivalent scale (MET) or a subjective scale. With wearable technology being accessible, affordable, reliable, and accurate, more attention should be given address recommendations that are multifaceted and specific. Most wearable technology can easily track sleep, steps, calories, hear rate, and exercise time within certain heart rate training zones. Research has shown that monitoring exercise and physical activity with wearable technology can improve health outcomes<sup>3</sup>.</p> Gabriel Sanders Copyright (c) 2022 Gabriel Sanders Mon, 10 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000