Research Directs in Strength and Performance <p>Research Directs in Strength and Performance (ISSN: 2768 - 5187) is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. The journal encourages authors to submit basic and applied research in strength and conditioning and all aspects of sports performance.</p> Pinnacle Science en-US Research Directs in Strength and Performance 2768-5187 <p>Copyright, 2022 by the authors. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.</p> Minutes Played Should be Used for the Calculation of Session Rating of Perceived Exertion During Matches in NCAA Division I Women’s Soccer <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Monitoring Training Load in soccer is used to achieve the best individualized performance outcomes and to prevent injuries. However, there is no clear recommendation for which ‘match duration’ should be used in the calculation of match Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Training Load (sRPE-TL) in NCAA DI women’s soccer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a duration standard to be used in the calculation of sRPE-TL in collegiate NCAA DI women’s soccer matches. A secondary aim was to investigate whether multiple positions require the use of different durations for the calculation of sRPE-TL.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong> Seventeen athletes (means ± standard deviations: age 20 ± 1.1 yrs., height 170 ± 6.6 cm, weight 64.6 ± 7.0 kg) participated in this study. Repeated measures correlations were used to determine the relationship between the different sRPE-TL calculations and objective variables (e.g., GPS variables and HR-based variable). Data was analyzed using the rmcorr package in R Studio executing R. Alpha was set a-priori at p ≤ 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The s-RPE-TL using the four ‘minutes played’ durations (‘minutes played only’, ‘warm-up added’, ‘halftime added’, and ‘warm-up and halftime added’) were strongly correlated with TLS (<em>r</em> = .773, .776, .789, .786), total distance (<em>r</em> = .825, .813, .811, .798), number of sprints (<em>r</em> = .716, .717, .712, .711), HSD (<em>r</em> = .608, .615, .609, .612), and mechanical load (<em>r</em> = .738, .738, .734, .732). When separated by positions, the correlations between sRPE-TL and objective data were similar across all four ‘minutes played’ durations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Any of the ‘minutes played’ durations should be used to calculate match sRPE-TL values for the entire team. Multiple positions do not require the use of different durations for the calculation of sRPE-TL which facilitates sRPE-TL comparisons across positions.</p> Silvio Polly da Costa Valladao Jeremy Loenneke Xin Ye Corbit Franks Thomas Andre Copyright (c) 2022 Silvio Polly da Costa Valladao, Jeremy Loenneke, Xin Ye, Corbit Franks, Thomas Andre 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 2 1 10.53520/rdsp2022.10545 Considerations for the Utilization of Questionnaires in Collegiate Team Environments <p>Questionnaires are commonplace in team and individual sports as a subjective tool to assess an athlete’s psychological perception and behavioral practices towards their performance and physical preparation. A consistent and systematic approach is required when administering questionnaires to an athlete or group of athletes. Proper questionnaire design and administration methods allow a strength and conditioning coach to effectively analyze the data and make actionable interventions when necessary. There are challenges in sports, especially team environments, which strength and conditioning professionals must maneuver to better help athletes. These challenges include sudden changes in practice or travel, coaching changes, administrative technicalities, athlete cooperation, and many more factors. When challenges arise, questionnaires are useful tool to gauge how an athlete responds to such changes. The purpose of this report is to outline strategies and considerations for strength and conditioning professionals to effectively implement questionnaires in the collegiate environment.</p> Greg Adamson Clare Quebedeaux Tyler Carpenter Stuart Roche Travis Kleifgen Alex Curtis Makennah J. Mills Copyright (c) 2022 Greg Adamson, Clare Quebedeaux, Tyler Carpenter, Stuart Roche, Travis Kleifgen, Alex Curtis, Makennah J. Mills 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 2 1 10.53520/rdsp2022.10546 Fixture Congestion has Minimal Impact on External Workloads in Collegiate Soccer Players <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Advances in GPS technology have allowed for the measurement of soccer players’ external workloads in competition. While short collegiate seasons with fixture congestion may pose challenges for sustained performance, no study has determined if objective measures of performance are impacted by game congestion in college soccer players.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>External workload variables were measured using the Polar Team Pro™ GPS device (n=19 players). Data were normalized by minutes played to account for discrepancies in playing time. Paired samples T-test was used to determine if workloads were different between the first and second games of “double-header” weekends (n=14 games).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In second games, sprints were significantly reduced compared to first games (0.49 ± 0.2 vs. 0.41 ± 0.1, p= 0.005), with decelerations tending to be lower (1.58 ± 0.4 vs. 1.43 ± 0.4, p= 0.06). However, there were no differences in total distance (133.3 ± 38.8 m vs. 129 ± 32.2 m, p= 0.54), high speed running (45.1 ± 13.1 vs. 47.7 ± 13.9 m, p= 0.26) and accelerations (1.5 ± 0.4 vs. 1.6 ± 0.4, p= 0.13) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: We note a small but significant difference in sprint distance with fixture congestion, despite no reduction in total distance run, high-speed running, or accelerations. These findings are unexpected due to the high demands of match play and limited recovery time between games.</p> Gary Long Kelly Freeland Johnathan Hayes Copyright (c) 2022 Gary Long, Kelly Freeland, Johnathan Hayes 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 2 1 10.53520/rdsp2022.10544 The Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate on Body Composition in Trained MMA Fighters <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Nutrition plays an important role for mixed martial art (MMA) athletes preparing for competition. Additionally, nutritional supplements are widely used by athletes preparing for competition. Among the various nutritional supplements used by MMA athletes, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is one supplement that may have positive effects on body composition during a fight camp.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The current study examined 16 healthy, male professional MMA fighters (29.0±3.5 yrs.; 178.5± 7.8 cm). Participants completed a randomized, double-blinded, two group [HMB versus Placebo (Cellulose)] by two-time point [Pre-, Post-], mixed study. The study consisted of subjects supplementing HMB (3g daily) or placebo in conjunction with MMA training over a 6-week period. Supplementation was consumed after each morning training session and first thing in the morning on non-training days. Body composition was assessed via InBody770® (InBody UK, United Kingdom) for both pre- and post-intervention. </p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There were no significant (p = 0.471) differences between HMB and Placebo (Table 2) following the 6-weeks of training for weight (HMB Pre- 84.6±10.8kg, Post- 84.1±11.6kg; Placebo Pre- 87.9±14.2kg, Post- 87.9±13.5kg). There were also no significant (p = 0.095) differences for skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (HMB Pre- 42.3±5.4kg, Post- 41.8±5.1kg; Placebo Pre- 44.2±9.0kg, Post- 44.6±8.8kg). No significant (p = 0.655) differences existed for fat mass (HMB Pre- 11.3±2.5kg, Post- 11.2±3.8kg; Placebo Pre- 11.0±4.9, Post- 11.2±3.6). Lastly, no differences (p = 0.641) existed for body fat % (HMB Pre- 13.3±2.5%, Post- 13.2±3.4%; Placebo Pre- 12.8±6.4%, Post- 12.3±6.6%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Based on the results, the use of HMB to improve body composition in trained MMA fighters is not supported. There was also no significant difference in skeletal muscle mass during the six weeks. </p> Jose Rojas Tobin Silver Jose Antonio Corey Peacock Copyright (c) 2022 Jose Rojas, Dr. Silver, Dr. Antonio, Dr. Peacock 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 2 1 10.53520/rdsp2022.10532 Inter-Set Voluntary Hyperventilation-Aided Recovery Does Not Improve Performance of Bench Press and Squat in Recreationally Trained Individuals <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>To examine the effects of voluntary hyperventilation (VH) between sets of bench press (BP) and squat (SQ) at 70 and 90% 1RM on repetitions to failure, power, bar velocity, blood lactate, session RPE (sRPE), and muscle oxygen saturation (SmO<sub>2</sub>).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fifteen recreationally trained (2.92 ± 2.18 yrs. of resistance training experience) college-aged males (20.27 ± 1.39 yrs., 182.40 ± 7.42 cm, 82.23 ± 10.84 kg) performed 3 sets of BP and SQ to failure at 70 and 90% 1RM on separate days with normal breathing (CON) or 30 sec of VH during inter-set rest periods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were no significant differences between conditions for repetitions, power, velocity and sRPE (<em>p’s</em> &gt; 0.05) at either intensity. VH resulted in a slight attenuation of blood lactate accumulation between sets 2 and 3 of SQ (<em>p</em> = 0.037). There was a significant condition and intensity interaction for SmO<sub>2</sub> of the pectoralis (<em>p</em> = 0.034) with VH producing higher SmO2 at 90% 1RM and lower SmO<sub>2</sub> at 70% 1RM than the CON.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Voluntary hyperventilation did not produce an ergogenic effect in recreationally trained individuals which, when considering current evidence, suggests other factors including training experience, may influence the effectiveness of VH.</p> Jeff Buxton Philip Prins Edward Ryan Dalton Jones Isaac Thrasher Madison Faulkner Elaine Robertson Gary Welton Dana Ault Copyright (c) 2022 Jeff Buxton, Philip Prins, Edward Ryan, Dalton Jones, Isaac Thrasher, Madison Faulkner, Elaine Robertson, Gary Welton, Dana Ault 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 2 1 10.53520/rdsp2022.10529 Utilizing the Maximum Workload Range for Practice Periodization <p><strong>Commentary</strong></p> <p>The maximum workload range (max range) is a concept suggested by Sanders et al.<sup>1</sup> regarding a method used to prescribe adequate practice workloads based off wearable technology data. The max range is calculated as follows from game data:</p> <p>Max Range = (Mean Total Distance + 1 St. Dev.) to (Maximum Total Distance)</p> <p>While the example provided utilizes total distance, the max range can be applied to key performance indicators such as high-speed distance, training load, jumps, etc. that are tracked throughout the competitive season in team sports. The max range concept was developed from research that found 12-17% of the time, football athletes, depending on position, accumulated game workloads outside their position’s mean + 1SD. Anecdotally, many coaches and practitioners use simple game averages as a control for ideal practice volumes. Based on previous research, using the game average as control training threshold may result in some high performing athletes being under-conditioned. It is reasonable to suggest that potential compound effects may occur throughout an entire season if athletes are not engaging in rigorous training loads that mimic game-like volumes and intensities.</p> <p><strong>Figure 1.</strong> Theoretical football periodization structure for a defensive back using the max range for high intensity training days.</p> <p><img src="" alt="" width="660" height="242" /></p> Gabriel J. Sanders Corey A. Peacock Copyright (c) 2022 Gabriel J. Sanders, Corey A. Peacock 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 2 1 10.53520/rdsp2022.10533