The Current Understanding of Fathers Influence on Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Development in Adolescence: A Brief Review Brief Review

Main Article Content

Phoenix Jampol
Tomas Chapman-Lopez
Andrew Gallucci
Jeffrey Forsse


Father, Family, Cardiometabolic health, Metabolism


The influence that parents and caregivers have on childhood development is understood and validated. Current research is focused on psychological, social, physical, and spiritual health. Though, in recent years, the early development of cardiometabolic diseases has increased among younger individuals at earlier time periods. The full extent behind the rapid development of these diseases remains unclear. Therefore, the specific influence that each parent or guardian potentially has on future cardiometabolic health development in children and adolescence is an area of growing interest. Significant research has been performed to conclude that the mother has a crucial role in proper childhood development. However, there is limited amount of published research that has isolated the specific role that fathers have on future physiological health outcomes in relation to cardiometabolic health. Thus, the focus of this brief literature review was to ascertain the current influence that a paternal parent has on cardiometabolic health development throughout childhood and adolescence. The results of the review are limited to studies focused on physical growth, nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. For many of the studies, the father’s role was assessed as a secondary or tertiary variable, and not as a primary factor or outcome. Based on the scarce amount of literature involving the father’s role in influencing cardiometabolic health outcomes, a clear consensus cannot be fully ascertained, and future research into this area is severely needed.


Abstract 281 | PDF Downloads 213


1. Chu WW en, Chu NF. Adverse childhood experiences and development of obesity and diabetes in adulthood—A mini review. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2021;15(2):101-105. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2020.12.010
2. Maggi S, Irwin LJ, Siddiqi A, Hertzman C. The social determinants of early child development: An overview. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;46(11):627-635. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2010.01817.x
3. Alderman H, Hoddinott J, Kinsey B. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition. Oxford Economic Papers. 2006;58(3):450-474.
4. Iguacel I, Gasch-Gallén Á, Ayala-Marín AM, De Miguel-Etayo P, Moreno LA. Social vulnerabilities as risk factor of childhood obesity development and their role in prevention programs. Int J Obes. 2021;45(1):1-11. doi:10.1038/s41366-020-00697-y
5. Stene LC, Barriga K, Norris JM, et al. Perinatal Factors and Development of Islet Autoimmunity in Early Childhood: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2004;160(1):3-10. doi:10.1093/aje/kwh159
6. Trivette CM, Dunst CJ, Hamby DW. Influences of Family-Systems Intervention Practices on Parent-Child Interactions and Child Development. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. 2010;30(1):3-19. doi:10.1177/0271121410364250
7. Santos DN, Assis AMO, Bastos ACS, et al. Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context. BMC Public Health. 2008;8(1):202. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-202
8. Boyle MH, Racine Y, Georgiades K, et al. The influence of economic development level, household wealth and maternal education on child health in the developing world. Social Science & Medicine. 2006;63(8):2242-2254. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.04.034
9. Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, et al. Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Household Dysfunction to Many of the Leading Causes of Death in Adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1998;14(4):245-258. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00017-8
10. Miller P, Podvysotska T, Betancur L, Votruba-Drzal E. Wealth and Child Development: Differences in Associations by Family Income and Developmental Stage. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences. 2021;7(3):154-174. doi:10.7758/rsf.2021.7.3.07
11. De P, Chattopadhyay N. Effects of malnutrition on child development: Evidence from a backward district of India. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2019;7(3):439-445. doi:10.1016/j.cegh.2019.01.014
12. Letourneau NL, Duffett-Leger L, Levac L, Watson B, Young-Morris C. Socioeconomic Status and Child Development: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. 2013;21(3):211-224. doi:10.1177/1063426611421007
13. Strickhouser JE, Sutin AR. Family and neighborhood socioeconomic status and temperament development from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Personality. 2020;88(3):515-529. doi:10.1111/jopy.12507
14. Walker SP, Wachs TD, Grantham-McGregor S, et al. Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development. The Lancet. 2011;378(9799):1325-1338. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60555-2
15. Rothenberg PB, Varga PE. The relationship between age of mother and child health and development. Am J Public Health. 1981;71(8):810-817. doi:10.2105/AJPH.71.8.810
16. Barker DJP. Maternal nutrition, fetal nutrition, and disease in later life. Nutrition. 1997;13(9):807-813. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(97)00193-7
17. Cui Y, Liu H, Zhao L. Mother’s education and child development: Evidence from the compulsory school reform in China. Journal of Comparative Economics. 2019;47(3):669-692. doi:10.1016/j.jce.2019.04.001
18. Alami S, von Rueden C, Seabright E, et al. Mother’s social status is associated with child health in a horticulturalist population. Proc Biol Sci. 2020;287(1922):20192783. doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.2783
19. Johnson RC, Allen TD. Examining the links between employed mothers’ work characteristics, physical activity, and child health. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2013;98:148-157. doi:10.1037/a0030460
20. Kosterman R, Haggerty KP, Spoth R, Redmond C. Unique influence of mothers and fathers on their children’s antisocial behavior. Journal of Marriage and Family. 2004;66:762-778. doi:10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00051.x
21. Wu Y, Guo Z. An analysis of the nutritional status of left-behind children in rural China and the impact mechanisms of child malnutrition. Children and Youth Services Review. 2020;119:105598. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105598
22. Garman AR, Chinn S, Rona RJ. Comparative growth of primary schoolchildren from one and two parent families. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1982;57(6):453-458. doi:10.1136/adc.57.6.453
23. Amirabdollahian F, Haghighatdoost F. Anthropometric Indicators of Adiposity Related to Body Weight and Body Shape as Cardiometabolic Risk Predictors in British Young Adults: Superiority of Waist-to-Height Ratio. Journal of Obesity. 2018;2018. doi:10.1155/2018/8370304
24. Amirabdollahian F, Haghighatdoost F. Anthropometric Indicators of Adiposity Related to Body Weight and Body Shape as Cardiometabolic Risk Predictors in British Young Adults: Superiority of Waist-to-Height Ratio. Journal of Obesity. 2018;2018:e8370304. doi:10.1155/2018/8370304
25. Menning CL, Stewart SD. Nonresident Father Involvement, Social Class, and Adolescent Weight. Journal of Family Issues. 2008;29(12):1673-1700. doi:10.1177/0192513X08322930
26. Stewart SD. Nonresident Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment: The Quality of Nonresident Father-Child Interaction. Journal of Family Issues. 2003;24(2):217-244. doi:10.1177/0192513X02250096
27. Brown MJ, Roman N. Primary Caregivers Perceptions of the Role of Fathers in the Provision of Nutritional Care in a Resource Constrained Environment in Cape Town, South Africa. In Review; 2019. doi:10.21203/rs.2.13975/v3
28. Shefer T, Clowes L, Ratale, Kopano. Talking South African Fathers: A Critical Examination of Men’s Constructions and Experiences of Fatherhood and Fatherlessness. South African Journal of Psychology. 2012;42(4):553-563. doi:10.1177/008124631204200409
29. Morton, Patricia M., Mustillo, Sarah A., Ferraro, Kenneth F. Does childhood misfortune raise the risk of acute myocardial infarction in adulthood? | Elsevier Enhanced Reader. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.11.026
30. Guardamagna O, Abello F, Anfossi G, Pirro M. Lipoprotein(a) and Family History of Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Familial Dyslipidemias. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2011;159(2):314-319. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.01.038
31. O’Rand AM, Hamil-Luker J. Processes of Cumulative Adversity: Childhood Disadvantage and Increased Risk of Heart Attack Across the Life Course. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. 2005;60(Special_Issue_2):S117-S124. doi:10.1093/geronb/60.Special_Issue_2.S117
32. Washington RL. Primary Care Providers Can Help Prevent Cardiovascular Disease in Children—And Their Parents. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2012;160(4):539-540. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.12.042
33. Ghosh A, Schlecht H, Heptinstall LE, et al. Diagnosing childhood-onset inborn errors of metabolism by next-generation sequencing. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2017;102(11):1019. doi:
34. Froese P, Marilyn D. Emotional Implications of Primary Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia in Childhood and Adolescence. Published online 1980:4.
35. Jang M, Chao A, Whittemore R. Evaluating Intervention Programs Targeting Parents to Manage Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review Using the RE-AIM Framework. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2015;30(6):877-887. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2015.05.004
36. Okui T. Socioeconomic Predictors of Diabetes Mortality in Japan: An Ecological Study Using Municipality-specific Data. J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(5):352-359. doi:10.3961/jpmph.21.215