Test Transferability of 3D-MOT Training on Soccer Specific Parameters Original Research

Main Article Content

Julia Phillips
Micaela Dussealt
Silvio Polly da Costa Valladão
Hannah Nelson
Thomas L. Andre


Visual Tracking Speed, executive function, perceptual-cognitive processing, task transfer, soccer performance


Introduction: Three-dimensional motion object tracking (3D-MOT) is perceptual-cognitive tool which utilizes executive function to train athletes to ignore distractors and enhance processing speed and peripheral focus. The benefits of perceptual-cognitive training in professional level athletes have recently been investigated in multiple sports such as basketball, soccer, and archery, but conclusive evidence suggesting test transferability of 3D-MOT training is lacking. The purpose of this research was to examine the transferability of perceptual-cognitive training to on-field soccer performance parameters.

Methods:  NCAA Division I women’s soccer players (n=22) between the ages of 18-25 participated in the study. NeuroTracker, a 3D-MOT device to train athletes executive function and decision making, was utilized to test the athletes. After baseline testing for both groups to determine visual tracking speed (VTS), the experimental group completed 10 3D-MOT training sessions with NeuroTracker over four-weeks. Game performance data, successful action, passing percentage, and short-medium range passing percentage, was collected utilizing Wyscout video analysis software during the 2021 season.

Results: The  mean VTS for the NeuroTracker training group significantly increased  by 0.68 from pre-3D-MOT training to post-3D-MOT training (p<0.001) while the control group increased by 0.12 (p = 0.034).  Analysis utilized an ANCOVA and observed no statistical significance for passing accuracy, successful action and short-medium passing accuracy (p > 0.05). However, the average in game passing-accuracy for the experimental group increased over the control group.

Conclusions: The effect of test transferability of 3D-MOT training on soccer specific parameters may be present, but causation of test transferability is not present within the current study. Further research is needed to investigate the cause-and-effect relationship of 3D-MOT training on soccer specific parameters while utilizing recruitment of multiple teams to increase sample sizes for similar investigations.

Abstract 245 | PDF Downloads 95


1. Faubert J, Sidebottom L. Perceptual-Cognitive Training of Athletes. J Clin Sport Psychol. 2012;6(1):85-102. doi:10.1123/jcsp.6.1.85
2. Hadlow SM, Panchuk D, Mann DL, Portus MR, Abernethy B. Modified perceptual training in sport: A new classification framework. J Sci Med Sport. 2018;21(9):950-958. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2018.01.011
3. Parsons B, Magill T, Boucher A, et al. Enhancing Cognitive Function Using Perceptual-Cognitive Training. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2016;47(1):37-47. doi:10.1177/1550059414563746
4. Romeas T, Guldner A, Faubert J. 3D-Multiple Object Tracking training task improves passing decision-making accuracy in soccer players. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2016;22:1-9. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.06.002
5. Faubert J, Allard R. Stereoscopy benefits processing of dynamic visual scenes by disambiguating object occlusions. J Vis. 2013;13(9):1292-1292. doi:10.1167/13.9.1292
6. Culham JC, Brandt SA, Cavangh P, Kanwisher NG, Dale AM, Tootell RBH. Cortical fMRI Activation Produced by Attentive Tracking of Moving Targets. J Neurophysiol. 1998:80(5):2657-2670. doi:10.1152/jn.1998.80.5.2657
7. Goodale MA, Milner AD. Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends Neurosci. 1992;15(1):20-25. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(92)90344-8
8. Faubert J. Professional athletes have extraordinary skills for rapidly learning complex and neutral dynamic visual scenes. Sci Rep. 2013;3(1):1154. doi:10.1038/srep01154
9. Mangine GT, Hoffman JR, Wells AJ, et al. Visual Tracking Speed Is Related to Basketball-Specific Measures of Performance in NBA Players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):2406-2414. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000550
10. Scharfen HE, Memmert D. Cognitive training in elite soccer players: evidence of narrow, but not broad transfer to visual and executive function. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research. 2021;51(2):135-145. doi:10.1007/s12662-020-00699-y
11. Komarudin K, Sagitarius S, Sartono H, Awaludin PN. Neurotracker Training to Improve The Archery Athlete Concentration. Jurnal Pendidikan Jasmani dan Olahraga. 2020;5(2). doi:10.17509/jpjo.v5i2.27385
12. Komarudin K, Mulyana M, Berliana B, Purnamasari I. NeuroTracker Three-Dimensional Multiple Object Tracking (3D-MOT): A Tool to Improve Concentration and Game Performance among Basketball Athletes. Ann Appl Sport Sci. 2021;9(1):0-0. doi:10.29252/aassjournal.946
13. Voss MW, Kramer AF, Basak C, Prakash RS, Roberts B. Are expert athletes ‘expert’ in the cognitive laboratory? A meta-analytic review of cognition and sport expertise. Appl Cogn Psychol. 2010;24(6):812-826. doi:10.1002/acp.1588
14. Moen F, Hrozanova M, Stiles T. The effects of perceptual-cognitive training with Neurotracker on executive brain functions among elite athletes. Cogent Psychol. 2018;5(1):1544105. doi:10.1080/23311908.2018.1544105
15. Lago-Peñas C, Lago-Ballesteros J, Rey E. Differences in performance indicators between winning and losing teams in the UEFA Champions League. J Hum Kinet. 2011;27(2011):135-146. doi:10.2478/v10078-011-0011-3
16. Jones PD, James N, Mellalieu SD. Possession as a performance indicator in soccer. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 2004;4(1):98-102. doi:10.1080/24748668.2004.11868295
17. Verburgh L, Scherder EJA, van Lange PAM, Oosterlaan J. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e91254. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091254