Considerations for the Utilization of Questionnaires in Collegiate Team Environments Technical Report

Main Article Content

Greg Adamson
Clare Quebedeaux
Tyler Carpenter
Stuart Roche
Travis Kleifgen
Alex Curtis
Makennah J. Mills


Data, Tracking, Subjective Monitoring


Questionnaires are commonplace in team and individual sports as a subjective tool to assess an athlete’s psychological perception and behavioral practices towards their performance and physical preparation. A consistent and systematic approach is required when administering questionnaires to an athlete or group of athletes. Proper questionnaire design and administration methods allow a strength and conditioning coach to effectively analyze the data and make actionable interventions when necessary. There are challenges in sports, especially team environments, which strength and conditioning professionals must maneuver to better help athletes. These challenges include sudden changes in practice or travel, coaching changes, administrative technicalities, athlete cooperation, and many more factors.  When challenges arise, questionnaires are useful tool to gauge how an athlete responds to such changes. The purpose of this report is to outline strategies and considerations for strength and conditioning professionals to effectively implement questionnaires in the collegiate environment.

Abstract 283 | PDF Downloads 82


1. Balchin, W.G.V. Graphicacy. Geography. 1972; 57(3):185-195. Accessed 12 Aug. 2022.
2. Cleveland Clinic. Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale. Cleveland Clinic. 2022. Accessed 21 Aug. 2022.
3. Drew, M.K. & Finch, C.F. The relationship between training load and injury, illness and soreness: a
systematic and literature review. Sports Medicine Journal. 2016;(46):861-883. doi:10.1007/s40279015-0459-8.
4. Duignan, C., Slevin, P., Caulfield, B., Blake, C. Mobile Athlete Self-Report Measures and the Complexities of Implementation. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2019;18(3):405-412. Accessed 12 Aug. 2022.
5. French, D. & Torres Ronda, L. NCSA’s Essentials of Sport Science. National Strength and Conditioning Association; 2022.
6. Forsdyke, D., Gledhill, A., & Adern, C. Psychological readiness to return to sport: three key elements to help the practitioner decide whether the athlete is really ready? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016;51(7)555-556. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-09770.
7. Gabbett, T.J. The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016;50(5):273-280. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-095788.
8. Haddad, M., Stylianides, G., Djaoui, L., Dellal, A., & Chamari, K. Session-RPE method for training load monitoring: validity, ecological usefulness, and influencing factors. Frontiers. 2017;(11):612. doi:10.3389/fnins.2017.00612.
9. Kreider, R.B. Strength, conditioning, and nutritional considerations for high-level performers. Human Kinetics. 2020;9(1):31-40. doi:10.1123/kr.2019-0062.
10. Luczak, T., Burch, R., Lewis, E., Chander, H., & Ball, J. State-of-the-art review of athletic wearable technology: what 113 strength and conditioning coaches and athletic trainers from the USA said about technology in sports. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. 2019;15(1):26-40. doi:10.1177/1747954119885244.
11. Jalilvand, F., Chapman, D. W., & Lockie, R. G. Strength and conditioning considerations for collegiate American football. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning. 2019;27(2):72-85. Accessed 23 Jun. 2022.
12. Reiman, M.P., & Lorenz, D.S. Integration of strength and conditioning principles into a rehabilitation program. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2011;6(3):241-253. Accessed 12 Aug. 2022.
13. Saw, A.E., Main, L.C., & Gastin, P.B., Monitoring athletes through self-report: factors influencing implementation. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2015;(14):137-146. Accessed 12 Aug. 2022.
14. Sharma, H. How short or long should be a questionnaire for any research? Researchers dilemma in deciding the appropriate questionnaire length. Saudi Journal of Anesthesia. 2022;16(1):65-68. doi:10.4103/sja.sja_163_21.
15. Souza, N.L., Esopenko, C., Conway, F.N., Todaro, S.M., & Buckman, J.F. Patterns of health behaviors affecting mental health in collegiate athletes. Journal of American College Health. 2019;69(5):495-502. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2019.1682591.
16. Williams, C. Creating a wellness survey for student athletes. National Athletic Trainers Association. [19 May 2020]. Accessed 23 Jun. 2022.
17. Williams, N. The Borgs rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. Occupational Medicine. 2017;67(5):404-405. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqx063.
18. US Department of Health and Human Services. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 27 Jul. 2022. Accessed 13 Aug. 2022.
19. Yaddanapudi, S., & Yaddanapudi, L. N. How to design a questionnaire. Indian Journal of Anesthesia. 2019; 63(5):335-337. doi:10.4103/ija.IJA_334_19.